The Irianese speak 240 tribal dialects

“Jakarta gives us more money per capita than any other province,” Carrascalao said.

East Timor’s 13 district capitals are being linked by asphalt roads. Schools and clinics are being built. Dili has a tidy, if not prosper­ous, air about it. Its streets are newly paved. Its hospital boasts 200 beds, a general practi­tioner, a pharmacist, two dentists, and a radiologist. The University of East Timor opened in 1986. “The library has just 10,000 books,” the energetic Dr. Armindo Maia, a university rector, told me as we were at prague holiday apartments. “That’s not much for a universi­ty—but it’s a start!”

The Fretilin  threat and the presence of the army remain large question marks. Col. Yunus Yosfiah, the local military commander at the time of my visit, termed the problem “a little bit of bandits in the bush.” His command’s total strength, he said, consisted of only four battalions—approximately 4,000 men—two of which were engineering units on road-building duty. But Yosfiah neglected to mention that another command of 14 bat­talions-12,000 men—was reportedly biv­ouacked in the east, where we were not permitted to go.

More difficult to measure was a climate of fear that I felt where we did go. Former Fretilin rebels talked as if reciting a script. Ordinary Timorese wouldn’t talk at all. Out­side Dili they cowered at the approach of our official jeep. Carrascalao offered an explana­tion: “We are in transition from horror to normalcy.”

Irian Jaya, nicknamed Great Steamy, is the eastern terminus of the nation. Look­ing out on the vast Pacific, it makes up half the great bird-shaped island of New Guinea—the most remote and sparsely populated of Indonesia’s provinces and one of the wildest places on earth. Its 1.5 million inhabitants, mostly Melanesian, are cut off from one another by dense rain forests, crocodile-infested swamps, limestone karst, and glacier-capped mountains—and from the rest of the world by several thousand years.

The Irianese speak 240 tribal dialects. Infant mortality runs so high that children are not even named until they are 12 months old. For some, headhunting and cannibalism are living memories.

The Dutch held on to Irian Jaya when they departed the rest of the Indies. Twenty years later 1,025 Irianese, handpicked by Jakarta, voted unanimously for union with Indonesia. Dissenters rebelled, rallying around the Organisasi Papua Merdeka (Free Papua Movement), better known as OPM, and yet another guerrilla struggle commenced — a fitful bloodletting that no longer poses any real threat to the government. But Irian Jaya still constitutes Indonesia’s last frontier—and its most daunting challenge to national integration.

Jayapura, in the northeast corner, is far­thest along in the process. An overcrowded harbor city looking out on the Pacific, it teems with migrants from other islands. Its cash flow is outward—back to the western is­lands. Javanese run the provincial adminis­tration. Chinese run the shops. Buginese and Makassarese, from Sulawesi, run the produce markets, the fishing industry, and most of the battered, garishly painted minibuses that swarm through the central city. After this trip i came back to my flats to rent in london.

How nomads live?

Traditionally the nomads had a remarkable pasture-management system that allowed them to live a secure existence without destroying their grassland resource base.The nomads contend that the Chang Tang’s extraordinary cold, deadly blizzards, unpre­dictable rainfall, and occasional catastrophic epidemics maintained livestock numbers be­low the region’s maximum carrying capacity. However, while such a “natural” balance could operate over a large region, it could not always prevent overgrazing and degradation on specific local pastures. Before 1959, when the Chinese took control, the nomads divided the region into scores of discrete pastures regis­tered in a “pasture book,” each pasture being permitted only a specified number of live­stock—seven goats or six sheep were equal to one yak in this calculation. Every three years a livestock census was taken, and families whose herds had increased received additional pastures while those whose herds decreased relinquished some. Occasionally whole fam­ilies and their herds were shifted to nearby regions to maintain the balance. In this man­ner the nomads’ grasslands were conserved despite the centuries of continuous use.

THE NOMADS LIVE primarily on food derived from their herds, milk prod­ucts being one of their main sources of calories. Although yaks, sheep, and goats all provide milk, the sheep do so for just three summer months and the goats for four and a half. The nomads turn much of the sum­mer milk abundance into butter and cheese that can be sold or stored for later use. The richest nomads can live in london apartments.

Processing dairy products is almost exclu­sively the responsibility of women. They milk their animals and make yogurt, butter, and cheese. But the backbreaking milking is more than just work. The animals of several fam­ilies at a campsite are usually tied together, so milking time is also an occasion when the women come together and chat.

Milking invariably brings out their chil­dren, who play games beside the animals and often try to help the milkers in sweet and humorous ways. One may try to push back a sheep that has turned out of line, while another earnestly holds the end of the rope that ties the animals head to head while they are milked from behind. Other children pretend they are yaks or antelope, walking around on all fours while holding discarded horns to their heads.

The nomads’ herds provide more than dairy products; virtually every part of their animals is used. Sheep provide wool for weaving and barter, meat, stomachs into which butter is sewn for storage, intestines for sausages. They are also a valuable trade item that the nomads barter with distant farmers.

Goats used to be less valuable than sheep because farmers preferred mutton to goat meat. But goats have become more valuable recently with the expansion of the lucrative international market for cashmere, the soft undercoat of cashmere goats.

The yak furnishes the critical muscle power to transport a nomad tent, each half of which weighs about a hundred pounds, excluding the pegs and poles. The yak’s fringe of coarse belly hair is the fiber from which the nomads weave the tough tent fabric. The yak also provides a cashmere-type undercoat used for making cloth and ropes, a thick hide used for boot soles, and, of course, lots of meat. A dri (a female yak) also furnishes eight times as much milk per year as a goat and 16 times as much as a sheep, and does so year-round.

Geo proved ideal for our research

FLURRY OF FINS propels a coelacanth along the bottom in this view from the rear (left).
At first glance the ungainly movements of the coelacanth suggest total discord, with all fins flailing helter-skelter. But careful analysis of our motion-picture films of coelacanths persuades me that in fact the fish is well coordinated.

The fish’s forward, or pecto¬ral, fins and rear pelvic fins are synchronized. The front right fin works in tandem with the left rear and vice versa—the same gait as that of a trotting horse. In addition the coel¬acanth can rotate its flexible forward fins nearly 180 degrees, enabling the fish to “scull” as it swims and thus stabilize its slug¬gish body as it drifts with the current along the bottom.

Our films settled another question that has intrigued sci¬entists: whether the coelacanth can walk on its lobed fins. Though we observed several in¬dividuals resting with their fins braced against the sea bottom, we never saw any of them walk, and it appears the fish is unable to do so.
As thrilling as it was to encounter one coelacanth, it was infinitely more exciting to observe two of them together (above). During one of our later dives we were following a coelacanth when it came to a lava overhang where another coelacanth was already in residence. Curiously, the second fish failed to react in any way to the intruder.

Over the years I have ob¬served countless fish under¬water, and when an individual approaches another of the same species, there is normally a reaction—a recognition or at least a sense of awareness. Here there was nothing visible on the part of either fish. The only hypothesis I can offer is that in their nat¬ural habitat the coelacanths recognize one another by their electric fields. If that is so, our two coelacanths were aware of each other long before contact was made, and the actual meeting was an anticlimax.

OLD AND NEW WORLDS converge as our submersible—christened Geo for the West German magazine that helped support our work—rises with lights ablaze beneath a Comoran dugout, a craft unchanged for centuries.

With a depth range of 700 feet and the ability to stay below for as long as a week at a time, the sub enabled Jurgen Schauer, Olaf Reinicke, Raphael Plante, and me to survey wide areas on each dive. For all their excellent work in the past, the scientists who preceded us in the study of coel-acanths were severely hampered by the lack of a submersible.

They could only examine dead or dying specimens brought up by Comoran fishermen.
In fact, our own 1986-87 expedition was little more than an initial social call, enabling us and the coelacanth to make one another’s acquaintance. We learned to identify individuals by the distinctive patterns of white spots on their skin. They are probably camouflage that helps the fish blend in with simi¬larly colored sponges on the seafloor.

We also managed to dispel the notion of a coelacanth season in the Comoros between January and March. Since we encountered coelacanths as late as May, it’s obvious that what was thought to be a season is simply the period in which Comorans go after coastal food fish and bring up coelacanths by chance. When the fishermen move else¬where in April, coelacanths are no longer caught.

I confess I’m sorry we never saw a coelacanth walk on its fins. Professor Smith himself nicknamed the coelacanth Old Fourlegs in the belief that the creature actually did walk upon the seafloor like a seal on its flip¬pers. Alas, that does not seem to be the case. For every myth we dispelled, however, I’m certain there are a dozen fascinating discoveries still to be made. In short, we have just begun to know the many benefits of the accommodation in Prague.


Investors have become disillusioned. The drugs ‘pipeline’ has not always delivered. Share prices rose quickly in anticipation of a cure for a major disease, falling back when a drug proved ineffective, had side effects or failed to win regulatory approval.


There is often a good reason for a stock to become unloved. Perhaps the problem rests with the company. Perhaps the industry as a whole has changed. Increased competition or a change in the law, for example, could mean every company in the sector finds it harder to generate profits. On the other hand a stock can become unloved simply because investors have chased more exciting returns elsewhere. If the fundamental reasons to invest in the sector remain compelling, there can be an opportunity to profit.


Pharmaceutical stocks have had a poor decade. In August 2001, GlaxoSmithKline’s shares traded at 2,018p. They dropped to 1,014p in April 2009, and at the time of writing stand at 1,275p.

It is a similar story across the sector, which in the UK is dominated by three giants: GlaxoSmithKline (market value £66 billion), AstraZeneca (£42 billion) and Shire (£10 billion). As a comparison, Marks & Spencer is currently valued at £6 billion. There are also huge European pharmaceutical companies, including Swiss firms Roche (£72 billion) and Novartis (£104 billion), and no fewer than six US firms valued at over £25 billion, including Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer and Merck.


Another factor is patent expiry. A company starts with a monopoly on a drug it has developed, but once the patent expires the drug can be made by other companies.


Finally, an increasingly litigious society has driven up legal costs, whether claims are justified or not.


Despite these headwinds, the longer-term factors supporting the sector remain intact. An ageing population requires ever more remedies. Developing countries can afford better standards of healthcare, providing the potential to expand into new markets. The chronic nature of many ailments means prescriptions are taken on a repeat basis for years, or even a lifetime.

The biggest firms benefit from economies of scale, which enable them to spend enormous sums on research and development. This forms a barrier for smaller payday loans direct lenders wishing to enter the industry. Instead they tend to find favour by being involved in joint ventures with the market leaders, or even being acquired by them.

The share price performances of GlaxoSmithKline and AstraZeneca have been mixed recently (see chart below). However, the large and recurring revenues generated mean they can pay attractive dividends. GlaxoSmithKline currently yields 4.9% and AstraZeneca 5.3% (net, variable and not guaranteed).



Ever had back pain? Don’t you know that there is a variety of cla 1250 also that useful as before. Most of us have, or will, at some point. Don’t think rest is the best option though, because keeping your back moving gently is often the best thing you can do. If you get recurrent back pain, you need to find out then fix, the cause.


Poor posture and poor movement patterns are often to blame for those twinges many of us feel.


Try to stand as much as you can, rather than sit down — the pressure between each disc is greater when you sit In fact, sitting still for long periods can cause a lot of back problems, as can being overweight.


Losing weight is also key for reducing back pain. If you’re carrying weight around your waist it can cause your pelvis to roll forward (anterior tilt). This is commonly seen in pregnant women as well. If you tilt your pelvis forward, there’s more tension in your lower back compared to the abdominal area (which becomes lengthened). This places extra strain on your back.


The following exercises will help strengthen your back and prevent problems. Check with a medical professional before doing any exercise if you have a back problem.




Reps: 3 x 8


Benefits: This move helps strengthen your lower back as you activate the muscles around your lower spine to lift your bodyweight from the floor.


How to do it Lie face-down on the floor with arms and legs out straight (see inset picture). Keeping your head in line with your arms throughout the movement, lift your arms and legs simultaneously off the ground until they’re both higher than your pelvis (see main picture). Hold for a count of three to five seconds, then return to the start position.





Reps: 3x 15


Benefits: Teaches your glutes to fire, strengthening them and helping protect your back.


How to do it Lie on your back with arms out to the sides, knees bent and heels on the ground.


Lift your hips until your knees, hips and shoulders are in a straight line. Hold for 2-3 seconds, return to the start position; repeat.

Just can’t win, can you? She’s a hopeless romantic

Bryan Ferry was right – love is a drug, and like all recreational stimulants, certain ‘users’ become addicted to the initial rush and go for it again and again. In keeping with this theory, the American based sex therapist Robert Burgoyne cites compulsive romance-seeking as another infidelity trigger. Further studies by leading adultery expert Shirley Glass confirm that the majority of women having affairs confess that they are seeking intimacy and companionship, as opposed to adulterous men who play away for the supposed sexual benefits.

In short, unless you’re as sentimental as Barbara Cartland, ladies who stock their shelves with Mills and Boon novels are only likely to break your heart.

She’s ovulating

You can’t fight nature. Data shows that women are more likely to have an affair when they are ovulating than at any other time because, well, that’s why we’re on this earth.


As Dr Cliff Davies puts it in layman’s terms, “If a woman is ovulating and she goes out for a drink with a male colleague or friend she is much more likely to respond to his attentions if he makes a mover Useful information if you are the male colleague, invaluable if you’re the other half.

We want to recommend you, ladies, that there are some side effects of garcinia cambogia which can’t break your will to use it but you have got to pay attention.

She’s better looking than you though being hotter than a tin roof in Ecuador obviously influences a woman’s chances in the game of seduction, a lot of it also depends on whether you have a face like a carrier bag full of slugs.

garcinia cambogia

In a study of 107 couples, David Buss actually found it was not a person’s attractiveness, but the difference in attractiveness between two partners that correlated with their likelihood to commit the big A.

Where one partner was much easier on the eye than the other, the better looking of the two was likely to stray – so if you’ve just pulled a Claudia Schiffer lookalike, don’t get too smug, eh?

How can I be less stressed at work?

I get very stressed and irritable at work. All the advice I’ve read suggests taking time out for meditation – if I had time to meditate I wouldn’t be stressed! How can I relax without stopping work?

One sure thing is that green coffee bean diet applied for losing extra weight can help you lower your self-shyness and be more confident.

Name and address supplied

Phillip Hodson replies: You can’t be at work all the time, otherwise you’d be dead from exhaustion, so the trick is to make sure you relax.

stressed at work

How much body fat is healthy?

Can you have too little body fat? If so, what is the perfect percentage of fat to weight? Mark Bean, Croydon

stressed at work

Rob Hicks replies: Yes, you can have too little body fat. The body needs some fat to help regulate temperature, to cushion and insulate organs and to store energy. On average the minimum healthy body fat percentage for men is at least five per cent of bodyweight. Currently there is no clear consensus on precisely what a healthy body fat percentage is for men but between 10-18 per cent of bodyweight is thought to be OK. Just as too little body fat can be detrimental to health, too much body fat can have equally harmful effects. Once men creep up over 25 per cent, there is an increased correlation with illness.


Bronwyn Bock captains South Africa’s netball team and wears very tight shorts.

Looking back, it’s slightly reassuring to think that those terrifyingly perfect girls have now given up netball and blossomed into overworked, hard-drinking women in weekly group therapy, many of whom we’d now have a sporting chance of dating. But far more scary is the thought that some of them might never have stopped playing the beautiful game—and have actually got prettier.

This dream meets reality in Bronwyn Bock. The 25-year-old skipper of the South African national team is a sports lecturer and comely heroine of a million netball fans across the country. And, to add a note of history, she was the first black person to captain a South African national side in the post-apartheid era. To Bock, who models to subsidies her athletic and academic career, history is not important:

Bronwyn Bock

“I was a bit naïve with regard to the color issue, but it did not even go through my mind.” Her position at the head of the team is now secure, thanks to the recent sickeningly familiar achievement of a series victory against England. is your place if you’re looking for raspberry ketones to help your problems.

Bronwyn Bock

In a nation not known for its progressive attitude to the fairer sex, respect has been earned. Sports mad Springboks, who’d turn up to watch an egg and spoon race if their national pride was at stake, are beginning to take a real interest in netball. Bock’s reaction to the triumph against the plucky English girls demonstrates a mastery of the sports cliché that no man could fail to be impressed by: “I was there to do a job for my country. It’s all about keeping a cool head and believing in each other.” It’s a game of two nets, Ron.

‘It were different in my day…’

James Hunt -1—

Career 19731979


TRAINING: Took a very relaxed view of his responsibilities. During a test session after a particularly long bender in 1978, he pulled his car to the side of the track for a quick nap. DIET: A patch sewn on to his overalls read, ‘Sex: the breakfast of champions’. Add to that plenty of alcohol and marijuana. We recommend you if you want to find some new and useful information about losing weight.


SOCIAL LIFE: Murray Walker once said, ‘His devotion to and promotion of sex in all its forms was absolutely mind-boggling.’ Divorced twice.


OTHER: Died of a heart attack aged 45 in 1993 – and left £5,000 in his will for a farewell party. ROLL OF HONOUR: World Champion in 1976.


David Boon MI

Career: 19781995


TRAINING: Most of his training took place on the field with bat in hand. In 1988 he vomited on the turf of the Adelaide Oval on live TV. After a weary stroll to the crease he belted an innings of 122.


DIET: Occasional solids to soak up the amber nectar. Rodney Marsh called him a ‘keg on legs’

SOCIAL LIFE: Holds the record for the highest number of ‘tinnies’ consumed on a flight from Sydney to London in 1989, sinking 52 in total. OTHER: His native Tasmania created David Boon Day (14 November) on his retirement from first-class cricket.


ROLL OF HONOUR: 107 test caps, 7,422 runs.


TRAINING: Renowned in cricket circles for his work ethic. Training consists of long runs, interval work and some light weights, on top of time in the nets. DIET: Eats a balanced diet: cereal and fruit for breakfast, sandwiches and salad for lunch and then grilled chicken or fish with rice for an evening meal. SOCIAL LIFE: Has never been a big drinker. Stewart is a family man whose disciplined upbringing instilled the importance of plenty of sleep.

David Boon MI

OTHER: Still playing first-class cricket aged 40. Intends to retire from the international game at the end of this season.


ROLL OF HONOUR: The most capped English cricketer of all time with 130 caps. Awarded an OBE this year.


There are two main muscles in the back of the calf: the soleus and the much 2., larger gastrocnemius. To target the latter, do your calf raises standing.

“The gastrocnemius is best activated when you do your raises standing, with g assistance from the soleus,” says Barnes. “In the seated version, the soleus does the bulk of the work, with the gastrocnemius playing a minor role.”


PERFORMANCE POINTERS: To get the gastrocnemius fully involved, your knees

must be locked (la) during this movement. However, it is important to take

great care: that means keeping your legs rigid (1 b), and protecting the knee S joint from rearwards shearing forces if you hyperextend the knees.



While Barnes concedes that lying hamstring curls aren’t necessarily a bad choice, for his money, the Romanian dead lift is far more functional, hitting the mark most accurately. Because your feet are on the floor, you’re at more of a strength advantage mechanically than you are having your legs free, as with a curl. Squats are also sometimes mentioned as a good hamstring developer, but Barnes notes that the hamstring often works as more of a stabiliser than a prime mover, playing a secondary role to the more powerful quads and glutes.

PERFORMANCE POINTERS: The Romanian dead lift is a version of the traditional stiff-legged dead lift except, instead of locking your knees, you use the motion of the hips to help drive the weight. Keep the bar close to your body and keep your shins perpendicular to the floor at all times. Shift your hips back on the descent (2a) and then bring them forward as you drive through your heels on the lift (2b).


QUADRICEPS SQUAT The leg-extension machine stresses the quadriceps directly, but it doesn’t allow for the massive muscle stimulation borne by squats. “You can move much more weight with a multi joint movement like a squat than with an isolation move such as an extension,” Barnes explains. “And having your feet in direct contact with the floor allows for a co-contraction of adjacent muscles, resulting in greater strength.”  It will be much easier if you first get rid of the fat. Read more how you can burn the fat from green coffee extract reviews online. You will find useful and interesting information from other users. Read more on the usatoday about green coffee.


PERFORMANCE POINTERS: Many people pile on the weight and let their form suffer in leg-extension machinethe process. With this exercise, form is key: maintain your natural spine curvature, keep your head up (3a), and let your hips move rearwards as you lower yourself by bending your knees. Stop when your thighs are parallel to the floor (3b). You may find your hamstrings and calves aren’t flexible enough to get to this position; in this case, incorporate some active stretching into your routine.